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Flying Stabilized Approaches

Andrew Heath

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Have you ever approached an airport too high or too fast and as a result you had to dive bomb the runway in order to land? Have you ever landed halfway down the runway in an attempt to squeak out that perfect landing rate? If the answer is yes to either of these questions, then you are the victim of an unstablized approach and in the POSCON world, you lose points for that type of flying. One of the biggest operational challenges for a virtual pilot is how to successfully accomplish a stabilized approach in the simulator. In fact, flying stabilized approaches in the flight simulator is difficult for even the most experienced real world pilots because of the inherent limitations of flight simulators such the limited FOV (field of view) compared to the real world. In this post, I am going to attempt to tackle the reasons why stabilized approaches are such a challenge and offer some techniques on how to ensure your approaches remain stabilized.

For our example scenarios, we are going to John Wayne - Orange County Airport located in Santa Ana, California (KSNA). This airport has two parallel runways:

Runway 20R/2L - this is the larger of the two runways at 5,701 x 150 feet with all of it available for landing.
Runway 20L/2R - this is the smaller of the two runways at 2,887 x 75 feet with all of it available for landing.

Runways 20L and 20R from X-Plane 11: 

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This is an old real world photo when the runways were previously named 19L and 19R.

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image.pngNot sure if you noticed, but there are two very important differences between the two photos other than the runway naming.

The first difference is that in the X-Plane photo, the runway touchdown zone markings extend the entire length of the runway which gives the flight simulator pilot a false sense of where the touchdown zone is located. In the real world photo, there are only three touchdown zone markings (not including the threshold markings). Each touchdown zone marking indicates 500 feet. You might ask, why are there only three in the real world? For that, lets define the term "touchdown zone".

Touchdown zone = the first 3,000 feet of a runway or first third, whichever is less.

In the case of KSNA, that means the touchdown zone is defined as the first 1,900 feet (5,701 divided by 3). 

So at KSNA, the runway painters only painted 3 markings to indicate the touchdown zone (3 x 500 = 1,500). Anything more than that would give the pilot incorrect information.

The second major difference between the two photos is the fact that the X-Plane runway is simply too long. You can tell this because of the location of the third touchdown zone marking in relation to the taxiway. In the real world photo, the taxiway is located in the same position as the third marking, but in the X-Plane photo, the taxiway is located in the same position as the fourth marking.

These types of scenery inaccuracies present a significant challenge to flight simulator pilots because landing in the touchdown zone is a requirement of every landing and the expected outcome of flying a stabilized approach. If you estimate that you will NOT land in the touchdown zone, a go-around MUST be initiated. POSCON will automatically deduct points from your score if you fail to land within the touchdown zone because it is indicative of an unsafe landing.

We now know what the touchdown zone is and why it is important, but to achieve a safe landing in the touchdown zone, it first starts with a stabilized approach. Significant speed and configuration changes during an approach can complicate aircraft control, increase the difficulty of evaluating an approach as it progresses, and complicate the decision at the decision point (i.e., DA, DDA, DH, MDA). Assess the probable success of an approach before reaching the decision point by determining the requirements for a stabilized approach have been met and maintained. Normal bracketing is defined as small corrections in airspeed, rates of descent, and variations from lateral and vertical path. Normal bracketing is a part of any instrument or visual approach procedure. Frequent or sustained variations are not normal bracketing excursions and are not acceptable. POSCON will automatically deduct points from your score if you fail to conduct a stabilized approach; however, you will only be charged points if the approach results in a landing. If you realize you are unstable and go-around without touching down, no points will be deducted. Let's review the criteria the POSCON grades on:

Stabilized Approach Requirements

On any approach, the following is required:

  • Below 2,000 feet above field level, do not descend at a rate greater than 2,000 FPM for more than a few seconds.
  • Below 1,000 feet above field level, or inside the FAF, do not descend at a rate greater than 1,000 FPM for more than a few seconds.

EXCEPTION: At special airports such as Lukla (VNLK), Telluride (KTEX), Aspen (KASE), Paro Bhutan (VQPR), etc. OR if you are simulating an emergency, you can "dispute" the point deduction in order to be exempt from the above criteria. We also are considering exempting certain aircraft types as well such as general aviation.

At 1,000 feet above field level:

  • You must be in a landing configuration (gear down and final landing flaps), no exceptions.
  • On the proper flight path.
  • At stabilized thrust (spooled).
  • Minimum speed: target speed minus 5 knots.
  • Maximum speed: target speed plus 10 knots.

EXCEPTION: In VMC, the requirements at 1,000 feet can be delayed until 500 feet above field elevation, except landing configuration.

These requirements must be maintained throughout the rest of the approach for it to be considered a stabilized approach. If the stabilized approach requirements cannot be satisfied by the minimum stabilized approach heights or maintained throughout the rest of the approach, then you must execute a go-around. The decision to go around is not an indication of poor performance, but rather good judgement.

Main Causes of Unstabilized Approaches

  1. Visual approaches.
  2. Poor descent and speed planning from cruise.
  3. Unreasonable ATC speed or altitude restrictions.

Techniques to Flying a Stabilized Approach

Here are some tips on how to achieve a stabilized approach:

  1. Stabilized approaches start with good descent and speed planning.
    • The total flying distance required for a normal descent to landing can be calculated by factoring 3 miles per 1,000 feet or 1 mile per 300 feet (3 to 1 ratio). Sometimes, however, a 3 to 1 ratio cannot be maintained due to high tailwinds, engine anti-ice activation, or ATC assigned speed restrictions. If you are flying jet aircraft, make sure you are not afraid to use speed brakes when necessary as they are a very effective tool to "go down and slow down" simultaneously. If you are in variable pitch prop aircraft, you can push the prop lever full forward which will use the blade of the prop to help slow the aircraft.
    • The best way to slow an aircraft in the descent is to level. It is not always possible, but when it is, it is good practice to build in a few extra miles prior to a speed restriction to level just to make sure you can achieve the desired speed. If the act of leveling gets you off your desired descent path (i.e. too high), you can always add flaps to maintain a high descent rate while maintaining a slow speed. Speed brakes can also help, but avoid using speed brakes below 180 KIAS.
    • Extending your gear is your trump card... play it when necessary. The gear is the biggest drag device you have on your aircraft. If the choice is between going around and dumping the gear early, the gear is always the best option.
  2. 1,000 feet is just a minimum. You should target 1,500 feet to ensure you are stable by 1,000 feet. In general, plan to be stabilized on all approaches by 1,000 feet above field level in both IMC and VMC.
  3. Use electronic guidance when available. This does NOT mean you need to request to fly the instrument approach, you can simply tune and backup your visual approach using an ILS or RNAV for the vertical guidance that these approaches provide.
    • A good technique on visual approaches is to intercept the vertical path, even if not established on the lateral guidance.
  4. If ATC assigns you an altitude or speed restriction you are unable to maintain, then simply say "unable".
  5. Know how to properly manipulate the the mode control panel (MCP) or guidance panel (GP) on your aircraft. Knowing what the different modes do will help you make good decisions during the descent phase. Also, it is important to understand how each mode interacts with your auto-throttle system. The last thing you want is the auto-throttles to increase power when you are not ready for them to do so.

Here is an example of what to do when you recognize early that a 3 to 1 ratio descent path is not going to work: 

image.png

Okay, now lets say you have tried ALL of the above and you are out of options, what now? Do you have to go-around?

There is one more option... increase the flying distance to the runway. You can do this a number of different ways, but it depends on how far away you are from the runway.

Early recognition of being unstable: If you realize early that you are going too high and/or fast on approach, you can ask ATC for "vectors for descent". 99% of the time ATC will be happy to accommodate this request because they rather give you a chance to make a stabilized approach than have to deal with your go-around. 

Late recognition of being unstable: If you realize that you are going to be high and/or fast and you are on final approach, then things become a little bit more complicated. With the exception of the C172-type aircraft and their ability to forward slip, the only option is an S-turn... yeah, that thing from the private pilot training. If you are flying into a controlled airfield, you need to request to conduct this maneuver from ATC. If you are flying into an uncontrolled field, you can simply perform this maneuver on your own.

CAUTION: Some people may suggest a 360 degree turn for stabilization on final as it is common practice at uncontrolled fields. I personally do not recommend this maneuver as it can lead to bad things if aircraft are behind you. If you feel that the S-turn technique will not work, it is better to just level at pattern altitude, fly upwind and then re-enter the traffic pattern.

The S-Turn Technique

The shortest distance between two points is a straight line, thus if you want to increase the distance to a runway (i.e. the time to descend and slow), you need to add a bend in your flight path. In order to do this, first make sure you are above 1,000 feet above field level and in VMC. If not, you need to go around and try the approach again. If you are, I recommend the following technique:

  1. Turn 30-45 degrees off course.
  2. Maintain throttles to idle.
    • If you are too high: pitch for maximum vertical descent rate based on height above field level (e.g. do not exceed 2,000 FPM below 2,000 feet AFL or 1,000 FPM below 1,000 AFL).
    • If you are too fast: pitch for desired airspeed.
  3. Evaluate your glide path using visual or electronic means.
  4. When you feel comfortable with the stability of your approach, turn back towards the airfield and intercept the straight-in final.
    • CAUTION: Do not let the maneuver deviate more than 1 mile from the straight-in lateral track, otherwise you might as well go around and re-enter the pattern.

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      Recent Entries

      Andrew Heath
      Latest Entry

      By Andrew Heath,

      On April 1st, 2020 we officially began approving invites to the POSCON Invite-Only Beta. We are now almost two months into our release and it still brings me great excitement every time I see a new user experience POSCON features for the first time. We learned a great deal in the first few days and weeks after the initial release. One thing that became abundantly clear was that we need to have a central location to refer users to in regards to what features are functional, what features are still in development, and what features are planned for the future. In addition, there still seems to be some confusion surrounding the invite process, so I am going to attempt to clarify all these items in this development update.

      Before I began, I think it is worth mentioning that we created a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) area that may contain answers to some of the questions that may not be answered in this blog post.

      While there is no doubt that we have deviated from the FSExpo 2019 Roadmap to Release timeline, we are doing our best to keep on track. Right now, I think it is safe to say we are in Invite-Only Beta, Phase 2. Here is a quick recap on the original plan for Invite-Only Beta, Phase 2 and what may or may not have changed since the announcement was first released:

      • Pilots will require an invite code and subsequent approval in order to participate
        • Status Update: This is still the case. Currently, any approved member with access to the network also has the ability to invite two additional registered users to the service by clicking here. Once invited, those members will be placed into a holding pattern until they are approved by the POSCON staff. There is no set time frame on when these approvals are distributed - we approve people when the team feels comfortable to receive additional members. This two-step process was designed to meter the flow of incoming members and minimize the amount of support requests we receive. More information on the invite process is discussed below.
           
      • ATC will be hand-picked by POSCON staff and will be required to sign an NDA
        • Status Update: This is still the case. We have been testing ATC regularly now, but we rarely advertise when or where we will be conducting these testing sessions. This strategy is employed on purpose in order to not overwhelm the controllers as they test new features. On a few occasions, we have given some advance notice of when ATC will be online, but right now those instances are rare.
           
      • Operating times will be schedule limited
        • Status Update: This is no longer true. Before we released, we separated the network into a development environment and a production environment which enables us to minimize interruptions to the users as we add new features. With the exception of a few hot-fixes in the early days after releasing, we have made considerable effort to inform all beta testers of scheduled maintenance well in advance of a server restart. In order to facilitate this, we created a System Status Monitor page which can be used to view the status and scheduled down times of our applications: https://status.poscon.net/
           
      • ATC coverage will be limited to areas selected by POSCON
        • Status Update: This is still the case. ATC testing has been limited to the areas where the facility data is most developed; however, our Facility Data Team has been tirelessly working on other areas around the world as well. Here is just a brief overview of what they have done:
          • 170 FIRs have been worked on.
          • 7856 independent ATC sectors have been created.
          • 7053 independent VHF transceiver sites have been located and entered into our database.
          • 1801 independent radar sites have been located and associated with 73 different radar types.
          • In addition to the above, below are just a few images of the FIRs that have been worked on:

      POSC.thumb.png.d42154b9976d3fc10592c7eb052a41fd.png

      1756128805_unknown(5).png.ac0d191d19aa5d8a40f2e3f4cd001207.png

      1146374016_unknown(6).thumb.png.717a35b499e35d6d690654371fef7aa0.png

      1283809566_unknown(5).thumb.png.4576d569db1ca90a9cb896965b3d4fda.png

      FIR_LPPC_LPPO.thumb.png.d834256c6dfa3969b4ce13dd3c48c0f9.png

      1d46e539283cb2736aaefb63c87233c3__01.thumb.png.edee1cc2ac83b286a0f9e9851c154d85.png

      CANADA.png.8661221da2fc676c1136fe08668d5b18.png 

      357923746_unknown(2).thumb.png.088420ffa33a7ff5d58d301ed19bb34b.png

      840845642_unknown(1).thumb.png.7b1c11c17517e321690c5ee905a22609.png

      587418646_unknown(4).thumb.png.44a78330ec89a312f7f6d10ecebde687.png

      MILANO_FIR_POSCON.thumb.jpg.e12fb9468ccdb9952b9a7bb38f09e962.jpg

       

      • Number of users was planned at between 1000-2000
        • Status Update: This is still the case. As of May 23rd, 2020 we have invited and approved 1278 registered users.
           
      • NDA is not required for Invite-Only Beta, Phase 2
        • Status Update: This is still the case. You are not required to sign a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) unless you are hand-picked to be an ATC. We will continue to maintain a select group of NDA pilot beta testers to test new features in our development environment.

       

      Invite Process - How does it work?

      As mentioned earlier, the invite process consists of two steps: INVITED and APPROVED. Here is how it works:

      1. Lets assume you joined the POSCON Public Discord first and then realize you are interested in joining the network. If this is the case, you are considered an "Enthusiast" and will be assigned that tag automatically in our Discord server.
      2. Now you decide to register at https://www.poscon.net and complete the checklist items which include: ensuring your birthday is set correctly and your Discord ID is connected to your POSCON account. At this point, you are now considered a "Registered User".
      3. If you are lucky, you may be invited by an approved member as their guest and you will receive an email from POSCON. If this happens, you are still considered a "Registered User".
      4. Please wait patiently until you are approved by POSCON staff. When approved, you are now a "POSCON Member" and have access to our HQ website and are able to download the Launcher Client. This is the point at which you can now connect to POSCON.

      The time between steps 3 and 4 is an unknown. It could be a matter of days, weeks, or even months. It all depends on where we are at with our development and whether we are ready to accept new members.

      If you find yourself in limbo, the best thing you can do is join our Public Discord and participate in the discussions until you are invited and/or approved.

       

      What is working, what is in development, and what are the future plans?

      Voice System

      Working Features:

      • Ground-based transceiver locations have been added for most ATC facilities.
      • Auto gain control.
      • Propagation of transceiver locations to the Radar Client.
      • Our voice library supports the option for separate PTTs per radio (e.g. VHF #1 and VHF #2), separate volume controls per radio, and separate audio devices per radio.
        • NOTE: The pilot clients do not currently support this yet.
      • Full VHF simulation including:
        • 8.33 kHz and 25 kHz spacing.
        • Terrain line-of-sight processing.
        • Beat simulation.
        • End-of-transmission popping tones.
        • Wavelength simulation.

      In Development:

      • ATISAWOS, and ASOS automatic audio broadcasts on the proper frequencies.

      Future Plans:

      • HF and UHF.
      • There are many more features planned, but we are going to keep those a secret for now.

      Website, Training, & Administration

      Working Features:

      • Fully GDPR compliant.
      • Integrated support system.
      • Basic flight statistics.
      • ICAO 2012 formatted flight plan form includes:
        • An integrated help tutorial provided on the page.
        • The form validates while entering data.
        • Auto-fill from SimBrief output.
      • Feedback and generic points system works.
      • Live Map used to view online traffic (updates every 2 seconds).
        • Users can leave feedback about each other using the map.
        • Moderators can initiate ghosting, disconnects, and bans using the Live Map interface.
      • Pilot Client Web UI, which can be accessed on any device with an internet connection (see below for more details).

      In Development:

      • Converting HQ to a new language and framework.
      • Moving elements of the ICAO 2012 flight plan to the server.
      • Live Map version 2.0 will use custom tiles and our own tile server. The map will also contain a 2D option for performance reasons.
      • Various upgrades to user-interface and user-experience throughout the HQ.

      Future Plans:

      • Upgrades to the user profile, including notifications.
      • Pilot and ATC scheduling system.
      • Advanced statistics center.
      • Additional ways to earn and lose POSCON points.
      • Additional CBTs with progression quizzes.
      • Airport Advisory Page system. This system will allow Divisions and Sub-Divisions to create informational pages about their airports that will be viewable by all pilots.

      Pilot Clients & Web UI

      Pilot Clients

      Working Features:

      • Both pilot clients support a high refresh rate. Models will update 15 times a second for a smooth visual experience.
      • Enhanced ground-clamping using various methods for a smooth experience regardless of differences in terrain.
      • Model matching. Here is how we handle model matching with the various platforms:
        • For X-Plane, the models are distributed with the pilot client itself and contain custom model matching logic.
        • For FSX/P3D, we have integrated the FLAi model set through our Launcher Client application (see below for more details).
      • ICAO equipment and airline code validation.
      • Accurate ground speed monitoring (X-Plane Only).
      • VHF push-to-talk activation indications.
      • VHF volume sliders on the native user-interfaces.
      • AI model sounds and controls (X-Plane Only).
      • The ability to control the maximum number of AI planes that will be displayed.
      • In-game notification of ghosting and disconnects with explanations.
      • The ability to manually toggle ghost mode or request to unghost.
      • Automatic detection of change in aircraft.
      • X-Plane 11.50 Vulkan support.
      • Moderator messaging directly into the pilot clients.
      • Automatic ghosting for:
        • Sim rate increase, entering slew mode, using replay mode, or deliberate pausing (this can also sometimes be triggered by accessing a sim menu).
          • If you are on the ground and not moving, pausing is allowed.
        • Connecting on or re-positioning to a runway (through a menu) will prevent connection or disconnect the user as applicable.

      In Development:

      • We are fixing various issues with models and model matching (X-Plane).
      • A new multiplayer library is being integrated (X-Plane).
      • A new native user-interface is being added (X-Plane).

      Future Plans:

      • We plan to make full use of the voice system by adding separate PTTs per radio (e.g. VHF #1 and VHF #2), separate volume controls per radio, and separate audio devices per radio.
      • HF and UHF integration.
      • There are many more features planned, but we are going to keep those a secret for now.

      Here is an Easter egg for those who have gotten this far in the blog: If you can name all the FIRs (the colored ones) depicted above correctly, then you can get an instant invite and approval to use POSCON. DM your answers to me directly. Offer expires May 27th at 2359 UTC.

      Web UI

      Working Features:

      • Some functions of CPDLC (Controller-Pilot Data Link) are operational such as the login function and automatic squawk code assignment.
      • Real-world FAA D-ATIS (Digital Automated Terminal Information Service) broadcasts are integrated and can be requested in real-time by pilots.
        • The voice portion of D-ATIS is not working yet, only the text portion.
      • METAR and TAF reports can be requested in real-time by pilots.
      • Radio syncing.
      • Ghost and unghost toggle.
      • Disconnect.

      Future Plans:

      • Additional CPDLC functions, including heading, speed, and altitude changes.
      • Full pilot report functionality.
      • Approaching online ATC awareness messages.

      Launcher Client

      Working Features:

      • The ability to download, install, launch, and update all available network software.
      • Token authentication. Once you enter your username and password once, the Launcher Client will take care of the rest.
      • image.png.f38b09c14b39359d078f8229fff838cf.png We added some new functionality to these buttons. The button on the left refreshes the Launcher Client, the middle button minimizes the Launcher Client, and the button on the right will send the Launcher Client to the system tray.
      • Once in the system tray, right-clicking on the Launcher Client icon will bring up a menu that will allow users to: reload, clean temp files, and quit the application.

      In Development:

      • Adding libraries that will utilize a new content delivery method through a download server.
      • Converting the application to a different framework.
      • Working on moving away from our web dependent set up.
      • User-interface changes such as adding a download progress bar, information display, and a direct link to Discord from the title bar.
      • Working on integrating Live Map version 2.0 through the Launcher Client.

      Future Plans:

      • The plan is to embed the Pilot Client native user-interfaces directly into the Launcher Client. There will be no need to launch a the Pilot Clients anymore after this is completed.
      • Once the back-end work is completed for the above, a new user-interface will be needed to accommodate the integration.

       

      Next steps?

      The next step for the POSCON team is simple: we will continue to work hard on bringing you the next-generation flight sim network.

      While we do that, we encourage you to join our Public Discord and participate in the discussions there. Typically, the most up-to-date information about the project is released on our Discord first.

      That's it for now! If you have any questions that have not been answered in the FAQ or in this blog post, feel free to comment below.

       

    2. Jarrett I. (1016071)
      Latest Entry

      By Jarrett I. (1016071),

      I'm sure you've seen those four letters before - RVSM - and you may have a fundamental knowledge about the airspace, but do you know why it exists? Here are the answers to the most basic questions:

      1. Where do we find RVSM airspace? Higher cruising altitudes.
      2. What happens in RVSM airspace? Airplane separation is reduced vertically.
      3. Why does RVSM airspace exist? To allow more aircraft in the sky.

      There you have it... the simple definition of RVSM. Now, let's get technical:

      179238233_rvsmexample.thumb.jpg.7dec5a890cb6b0df0630858cc6783e10.jpgRVSM stands for Reduced Vertical Separation Minima and it's located between FL290 (29,000ft) until FL410 (41,000ft) inclusive. To understand RVSM, you must first understand what the vertical separation requirements were above FL290 before 2005. Prior to RVSM, aircraft were required to be separated by 2,000 feet vertically above FL290 due the possibility of altimetry errors at the higher flight levels. RVSM airspace allows for a reduction in vertical separation between qualifying aircraft in order to allow more aircraft to operate in crowded enroute airspace thereby allowing for more efficient traffic flows. Airplanes of course move a lot faster at higher altitudes though, so it is only natural that this little amount of separation may make even the most vigilant pilot a little nervous. However, it is important to note that before implementing RVSM, aviation authorities instituted a required set of parameters that must be met in order to operate in RVSM. If any of these parameters cannot be met before entering or while operating within RVSM airspace, the aircraft is required to advise ATC and exit RVSM.

      Before we get into other details about RVSM lets recall that in many countries, the East ODD and West EVEN rule applies to vertical separation. This practice ensures that two airplanes are never assigned the same altitude flying in opposite directions. In some regions that are geographically more north/south split such as Italy or Florida for example, they have elected to modify the rule to favor North ODD and South EVEN as the determining factor for vertical separation. Either way a region chooses to separate traffic, it is important to recognize that these rules exist are crucial to establishing a baseline for high altitude vertical separation.

      Now that we have covered the basic rule for opposite direction vertical separation, let's talk about what makes an aircraft RVSM approved. In order for an aircraft to operate in RVSM airspace, a certification is required from the governing agency of that nation (FAA, local CAA's, etc.), but the basic equipment that an aircraft should have operational include: an autopilot, two independent altimeters, a transponder with an altitude reporting capability, and an altitude alerting system. During flight in RVSM airspace, pilots will cross check their two independent altimeters to ensure the difference does not exceed a specified tolerance, which could range anywhere between 50ft to 200ft.  If any of these items malfunction during flight in RVSM airspace, notification to air traffic control is essential.

      Let's talk about air traffic controller's responsibilities in regards to RVSM airspace. Aircraft will have an equipment code in their flight plan assuring ATC that they are RVSM compliant and capable. If an aircraft alerts that they are no longer RVSM capable, ATC will have to either ensure separation of 2,000ft with that aircraft at all times or descend the aircraft outside of RVSM (below FL290).  However, just because an aircraft is not RVSM capable does not mean they can never fly between those altitudes. Many corporate jets are not RVSM capable but still request to cruise above RVSM airspace (e.g. FL430). In this scenario, the controller will climb the aircraft through RVSM airspace while ensuring 2,000ft separation is maintained between other traffic at all times. 

      On a final note, RVSM aircraft require a maintenance certification as well. The next time you start up your flight sim and connect to POSCON for IMG_20190825_235257469.thumb.jpg.8e83b29248a45ce99a0d2db21142efb2.jpgyour online flight simulation experience, take a look at the outside of your aircraft. Depending on the quality of the aircraft in terms of realism and study level, you should see what's called an RVSM critical area (see image to the right). Aircraft maintenance technicians must run specific tests and certify that everything located within this box meets the required RVSM tolerances, which are often stricter than in flight checks accomplished by pilots. Static ports, pitot tubes, and AOA vanes are small examples of what can be found in these boxes, of course, these are important functions that will assure RVSM tolerances when in flight. Pilots check this box during preflight inspections to ensure this critical area is free of residue, damage, dents, or other non-normal appearances on the components in the boxed lines.

      On POSCON, our air traffic controllers are well trained on RVSM procedures. When flying online, ensure your aircraft is RVSM capable and make sure you indicate it properly in the flight plan equipment code section ("W" is the letter identifying that the aircraft RVSM capable). If you do not include "W" and are offered an RVSM altitude (it happens), simply say to ATC "Negative RVSM". And of course if you are having issues with your autopilot, now you know you are required to tell air traffic control.

      After reading this article, you should be confident answering when and why the "W" equipment code is required in your flight plan. It is true, there are far too many acronyms in the aviation world, but at least you got RVSM down! See you on POSCON in RVSM and don't forget the whiskey! (get it?)

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